Tuesday, 10 May 2011

புவியியல்




Grasslands

Grasslands                    Continent / Country      
Prairies                           North America
Pampas                          South America
Pretoria                          South Africa
Veld                               South Africa
Steppes                          Eurasia/ Argentina
Downs                           Australia
Pustaz                            Hungary
Cantanburry                   New சிலாந்து


Largest Island of the World

S      Name                                   Location                             Sq.miles
1. Greenland                               North Atlantic                       839,999
2. New Guinea1                         Southwest Pacific                  309,000
3. Borneo2                                 West mid-Pacific                   287,300
4. Madagascar                           Indian Ocean                        227,௦௦௦


Largest Lakes of the World

1. Caspian Sea      Azerbaijan-Russia-Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran 
                              (salt water) -  152,239
2. Superior           U.S.-Canada  - 31,820
3. Victoria            Tanzania-Uganda  - 26,828
4. Huron              U.S.-Canada  - 23,௦௧௦




Most Populous Countries

1. China -1,321,851,888
2. India -1,129,866,154
3. United States -301,139,947
4. Indonesia -234,693,997
5. Brazil -190,010,௬௪௭

Highest Mountain Peaks of the World

1.Everest-                                   Himalayas-Nepal/Tibet - 8,848 meter
2.K2 (Godwin Austen)              Karakoram-Pakistan/China - 8,611
3.Kanchenjunga-                       Himalayas-India/Nepal - 8,586
4.Lhotse I -                                Himalayas - Nepal/Tibet - 8,௫௧௬


LARGEST COUNTRIES (by land mass)

1. Russia - 17,075,400 sq km
2. Canada - 9,330,970 sq km
3. China - 9,326,410 sq km
4. USA - 9.166,600 sq km
5. Brazil - 8,456,510 sq km
6. Australia - 7,617,930 sq km
7. India - 2,973,190 sqkm


CONTINENTS (by Population)

Asia - 3,879,000,000 ( FIRST )
Africa - 877,500,000 ( SECOND )
Europe - 727,000,000 ( THIRD )
North America - 501,500,000 ( FOURTH )
South America- 379,500,000 ( FIFTH )
Australia/Oceania -32,000,000 ( SIXTH )
Antarctica - ௦0


SNo
Western Coast
Eastern Coast
1
Kandla                            (Child of partition)
Kolkata - Haldia   (riverine port)
2
Mumbai                          (busiest and biggest)
Paradip                            
(exports raw iron into Japan)
3
Jawahar LalNehru                  (fastest growing)
Vishakhapatnam     (deepest port)
4
Marmugao                      (naval base also)
Chennai (oldest and artificial)
5
Mangalore                     (exports Kudremukh iron-ore)
Ennor (most modern in private hands)
6
Cochin                            (natural Harbour)
Tuticorin (southernmost)





Name
Origin From
Falls into
Length (km)
Ganges
Combined Sources
Bay of Bengal
2525
Satluj
Mansarovar Rakas Lakes
Chenab
1050
Indus
Near Mansarovar Lake
Arabian Sea
2880
Ravi
Kullu Hills near Rohtang Pass
Chenab
720
Beas
Near Rohtang Pass
Satluj
470
Jhelum
Verinag in Kashmir
Chenab
725
Yamuna
Yamunotri
Ganga
1375
Chambal
M.P.
Yamuna
1050
Ghagra
Matsatung Glacier
Ganga
1080
Kosi
Near Gosain Dham Peak
Ganga
730
Betwa
Vindhyanchal
Yamuna
480
Son
Amarkantak
Ganga
780
Brahmaputra
Near Mansarovar Lake
Bay of Bengal
2900
Narmada
Amarkantak
Gulf of Khambat

1057

Tapti
Betul Distt. In M.P.
Gulf of Khambat
724
Mahanadi
Raipur Distt. In Chhatisgarh
Bay of Bengal
858
Luni
Aravallis
Rann of Kuchchh
450
Ghaggar
Himalayas
Near Fatehabad
494
Sabarmati
Aravallis
Gulf of Khambat
416
Krishna
Western Ghats
Bay of Bengal
0
Godavari
Nasik Distt. In Maharashtra
Bay of Bengal
1465
Cauvery
Brahmagir Range of Western Ghats
Bay of Bengal
805
Tungabhadra
Western Ghats
Krishna river
640




Hill Stations
State Name
Almora (Kumaon hills)
Uttar Pradesh
Cherrapunji (Shillong)
Meghalaya
Coonoor (Nilgiri hills)
Tamil Nadu
Dalhousie
Himachal Pradesh
Darjeeling
West Bengal
Gulmarg
Kashmir (Highest)
Kasauli (Shimla)
Himachal Pradesh
Kodaikanal
Tamil Nadu
Mahabaleshwar
Maharashtra
Mt. Abu
Rajasthan
Mussoorie
Uttaranchal
Nainital
Uttaranchal
Ootacamund
Tamil Nadu
Pachmarhi
Madhya Pradesh
Ranchi
Jharkhand
Shillong (Khasi hills)
Meghalaya
Shimla
Himachal Pradesh
Srinagar
Jammu & Kashmir

S.No
Between the Countries
States
1
Bordering    Pakistan
    1)   Jammu and Kashmir,
    2)   Punjab
    3)   Rajasthan
    4)   Gujarat.
2
Bordering China
    1)   Jammu and Kashmir
    2)   Himachal Pradesh
    3)   Uttaranchal
    4)   Sikkim
    5)   Arunachal Pradesh.
3
Bordering Nepal
    1)   Bihar
    2)   Uttaranchal
    3)   Uttar Pradesh
    4)   Sikkim
    5)   West Bengal
4
Bordering Bangladesh
    1)   West Bengal
    2)   Mizoram
    3)   Meghalaya
    4)   Tripura
    5)   Assam
5
Bordering Bhutan 
    1)   West Bengal
    2)   Sikkim
    3)   Arunachal Pradesh
    4)   Assam
6
Bordering Myanmar
    1)   Arunachal Pradesh
    2)   Nagaland
    3)   Manipur
    4)   Mizoram
7
Bordering Afghanistan
Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan - occupied area)

Border Distances

China  - India                                  4, 225 Km
India - Pakistan                               4, 090 Km
India - Bangladesh                          3, 910 Km
India - Myanmar                            1, 450 Km 




f©l§fŸ


1.         MÁah

Ø  gu¥Ãåš bgçaJ ( _‹¿š xU g§F ) 4,40,09,000 r.».Û.
Ø  k¡fŸ bjhifæš Kjèl«  ( 60 % (m) IªÂš _‹W g§F )
Ø  »H¡nf gÁá bgU§flš
Ø  nk‰nf M¥Ãç¡fh k‰W« Inuh¥gh
Ø  tl¡nf M®o¡ Ãunjr«
Ø  bj‰nf ϪÂa bgU§flš
Ø  äf ca®ªj gF vtbu°£ Áfu«
Ø  äf jhœªj gF rh¡flš

2.       M¥Ãç¡fh

Ø  gu¥gséš 2tJ bgça f©l« ( 70,50,00,000 r.». Û )
Ø  k¡fŸ bjhifæš _‹whtJ bgça f©l« ( v£oš xU g§F )
Ø  äf¥ bgça ehL Nlh‹
Ø  äf¢ Á¿a ehL nrbõš°
Ø  k¡fŸ bjhif mÂf« bfh©l ehL ieÉçah
3.       Inuh¥gh

Ø  gu¥gséš 6tJ bgça f©l« 1,04,45,000 r.»,Û
Ø  äf ca®ªj gF  kΩ£ Vš¥u°
Ø  äf jhœªj gF fh°Ãa‹ fl‰fiu
Ø  äf¥bgça MW thšfh
Ø  »H¡nf Vuš kiy¤ bjhl®
Ø  nk‰nf m£yh©o¡ bgU§flš
Ø  tl¡nf M®o¡ bgU§flš
Ø  bj‰nf k¤Âa jiu¡flš

4.       tlmbkç¡fh

Ø  gu¥gséš 3tJ bgça f©l«
Ø  k¡fŸ bjhifæš 4tJ bgça f©l«
Ø  bkh¤j mséš äf Ú©l f‰fiuia bfh©l f©l« 3,00,000 »,Û
Ø  äf ca®ªj gF my°fhéYŸs bk¡»‹é
Ø  äf jhœªj gF rhÎ¥ gŸs¤jh¡F mU»š cŸs ng£ th£l®
Ø  cy»‹ äf¥ bgça Ôthf Ñç‹yhªJ Ï¡f©l¤Âš mikªJŸsJ
Ø  cy»‹ äf¥ bgça e‹Ü® Vçahd ny¡ R¥Õça® Ï¡f©l¤Âš mikªJŸsJ
Ø  tl¡nf M®o¡ flš
Ø  bj‰nf bj‹ mbkç¡fh

5.       bj‹mbkç¡fh

Ø  gu¥gséš 4tJ bgça f©l«  1,78,32,000 r.».Û.
Ø  k¡fŸ bjhifæš 5tJ bgça f©l«
Ø  mnkrh‹ fhLfŸ Ï¡f©l¤Âš mikªJŸsd
Ø  m£lfhkh ghiytd« Ï¡f©l¤Âš mikªJŸsJ

6.       M°Ânuèah

Ø   gu¥gséš 6tJ bgça f©l« 77,13,000 r.».Û.
Ø   f©lkhfΫ mnj rka« ehlhfΫ és§F»wJ
Ø   ϪÂa bgU§flY¡F« bj‹ gÁá bgU§flY¡F« Ïilæš mikªJŸsJ

7.       m©lh®ofh

Ø  gåahš Md f©l«
Ø  cy»‹ äf Fë®thd gFÂ


Ø      kh£oiw¢Á c‰g¤Âš K‹dåæš cŸs ehL m®b#‹odh
Ø    1992š Inuh¥ghé‹ Kjš Ï°yh« ehlhf kh¿a ehL mšngåah
Ø    cy»‹ äf¢Á¿a ehLfëš x‹W m‹nlhuh
Ø    M¥fhå°jh‹ Jt¡f fhy¤Âš mçahdh v‹W miH¡f¥g£lJ
Ø   1996š M¥fhå°åš cŸs fhóš efçid jhèg‹ gilfŸ if¥g‰¿d. 
Ø   1998 Mf°oš M¥fhå°jhå‹ bgU« gFÂia jhèg‹ gilfŸ if¥g‰¿d. 
Ø   gh»°jh‹, brs mnuÃah, I¡»a muò FoauR M»a ehLfŸ jhèg‹ M£Áia m§Ñfç¤jd
Ø   f«gë, gh¡ir£ c‰g¤Âæš Kjèl¤Âš cŸs ehL M°Ânuèah
Ø   òJ äšèåa¤Â‹ Kjš xè«Ã¡ ngh£o M°Ânuèahé‹ Á£å efçš eilbg‰wJ
Ø   ϪnjhndÁahéš Rkh® 13,600 ÔÎfŸ ml§»ÍŸsd
Ø   cy»‹ äf¥ bgça Ï°yhäa ehL Ϫnjhndîah
Ø   cy»š m¿a¥gL« Kjš ehfçf« <uh¡»š njh‹¿ajhf fUj¥gL»wJ. ( ô¥uO°, il¡ß° e¡fiuæš njh‹¿aJ )
Ø   <uhå‹ Kªija bga®  bg®îah
Ø   1979 š V‰g£l òu£Áæid bjhl®ªj <uh‹ Ï°yhäa ehlhf kh¿aJ
Ø   Ïy§if ϪÂahé‹ bj‹Kidæš ÏUªJ 80 ».Û. öu¤Âš mikªJŸsJ
Ø   itu« g£il Ô£Ltš Kjèl« t»¡F«ehL bgšía«  2tJ Ïl« Ï°nuš
Ø   bj‹mbkç¡fhé‹ äf¢Á¿a ehL  <¡Ftlh®
Ø   cy»š thiH¥gH c‰g¤Âæš Kjèl« t»¡F« ehL  <¡Ftlh®
Ø   Inuh¥ghé‹ Ïu©lhtJ äf¥bgça ehL c¡iu‹
Ø   nrhéa¤ uZah 1991š gy ehLfshf Áj¿aJ
Ø   »H¡F-k¤Âa M¥Ãç¡fhé‹ k¡fŸ beU¡f« äFªj ehL  cf©lh
Ø   Ïy¤Ô‹ mbkç¡fhé‹ Ré£#®yhªJ vd miH¡f¥gL« ehL cUFnt
Ø   Na° fhšthŒ v»¥J eh£oš mikªJŸsJ
Ø   cy»š bt¥g« äFªj ehLfëš x‹W Xk‹
Ø   cy»š gu¥gséš Ïu©lhtJ äf¥bgça ehL fdlh
Ø   nkh£lh® ghf§fis V‰WkÂæš cy»š Kjèl« t»¡F« ehL fdlh
Ø   cy»‹ äf¥ bgça bt¥g ãiy¡ fhLfŸ mikªJŸs ehL fh§nfh
Ø   fh§nfhéš br«ò äf mÂf mséš »il¡»wJ
Ø   fU«ò c‰g¤Âæš K‹dâ t»¡F« ehL »ôgh
Ø   tâf f¥gšfŸ mÂf« cŸs ehLfSŸ x‹W »ß°
Ø   2004 nfhil¡fhy xè«Ã¡ ngh£ofŸ »ß° eh£oYŸs Vbj‹° efçš eilbg‰wJ
Ø   eWkz¥ bghU£fŸ c‰g¤Â¡F bga® bg‰w ehL »budlh
Ø   ônfh°yhéahé‹ Ïu©lhtJ bgça FoauR ehL Fnuhîah
Ø   cy»‹ bg£nuhš ÏU¥Ãš g¤Âš xU g§F bfh©LŸs ehL Fit¤
Ø   j§f Ru§f§fŸ äFÂahf cŸs ehLfëš x‹W bf‹ah
Ø   tlk¤Âa M¥Ãçfhé‹ k¡fŸ bjhif Fiwªj ehL rh£
Ø   é¡nlhçah ڮŜ¢Á mikªJŸs ehL #h«Ãah
Ø   cy»‹ äf¥ gHikahd FoauR ehL rh‹kçndh
Ø   Á§f¥ó® 50 ÔÎfis bfh©l ehL


Ø   MÁahényna äf¥bgça v©bzŒ R¤jfç¥ò ãiya« Á§f¥óçš mikªJŸsJ
Ø   cy»‹ itu c‰g¤Âæš  bgU« gF Áa®uh ènah‹ eh£oš ÏUªJ bgw¥gL»wJ
Ø   cy»š Kj‹ Kjyhf vG¤J Áçah eh£oš jh‹ njh‹¿ajhf fUj¥gL»wJ
Ø   m£lfhkh ghiytd« Áè eh£oš mikªJŸsJ
Ø   cy»‹ br«ò c‰g¤Âæš K¡»a g§F t»¡F« ehL Áè
Ø   »H¡F MÁahé‹ äf¥ bgça ehL Ódh
Ø   1999š Ódh cUthdj‹ 50tJ éHh bfh©lhl¥g£lJ
Ø   Ah§fh§ 230 ÔÎfŸ ml§»a ehL
Ø   nfhªJ c‰g¤Âæš cy»š Kjèl« bgW« ehL Nlh‹
Ø   nrbõš° 50 ÁW ÔÎfis cŸsl¡»a ϪÂa¥ bgU§flèš mikªJŸs xU M¥Ãç¡f ehL
Ø   nrhkhèahéš 1992« M©L äf¥bgça gŠr« V‰g£lJ
Ø   k¤Âa »H¡F ehLfëš gu¥gséš äf¥bgça ehL brs mnuÃah
Ø   cy»š mÂf msÎ bg£nuhš c‰g¤Â brŒÍ« ehLfëš x‹W brs mnuÃah
Ø   äf¡ Fiwªj CHš eilbgW« ehLfëš Kjèl« bgWtJ bl‹kh®¡
Ø   cy»š R¤j« äFªj ehLfëš Kjèl« t»¡F« ehL bl‹kh®¡
Ø   bj‹»H¡F MÁahéš nk‰f¤Âa M¡f« V‰glhj xnu ehL jhŒyhªJ
Ø   jhŒyhªÂ‹ giHa bga® rah«
Ø   »H¡F M¥Ãç¡fhé‹ äf¥bgça ehL jh‹rhåah
Ø   M¥Ãç¡fhé‹ äf ca®ªj Áfukhd »ëkŠrhnu tl¡F jh‹rhååahéš mikªJŸsJ
Ø   Inuh¥ghéY« MÁahéY« mikªJŸs xU k¤Âa »H¡F ehL JU¡»
Ø   cy® Âuh£ir c‰g¤Âš cy»š Ïu©lhtJ Ïl« t»¡F« ehL JU¡»
Ø   ötY K‰fhy¤Âš všÄ° ÔÎ vd miH¡f¥g£lJ
Ø   ijth‹ K‰fhy¤Âš gh®nkh[h v‹w bgaçš miH¡f¥g£lJ
Ø   M¥Ãç¡fh f©l¤Â‹ bj‹ Kidæš mikªJŸs ehL bj‹M¥Ãç¡fh
Ø   cy»nyna j§f« c‰g¤Âæš Kjèl« t»¡F« ehL bj‹M¥Ãç¡fh ( 47 rjé»j« )
Ø   nehgš gçir tH§F« ehL eh®nt
Ø   k¤Âa mbkç¡fhéš gu¥gséš äf¥ bgça ehL ãfuhFth
Ø   cy»š bg©fS¡F th¡Fçik më¤j Kjš ehL ãôÁyhªJ
Ø   bej®yhªJ, AhyªJ v‹w bgaçY« miH¡f¥gL»wJ
Ø   neghs« xU bj‹ k¤Âa MÁa ehL
Ø   nfhykid£ c‰g¤Âæš cy»š Kjèl« t»¡F« ehL  ieÉçah
Ø   besU ehL gh°ng£ gok§fis mÂf« bfh©LŸsJ
Ø   gÀiu‹ 30 ÔÎfis cŸsl¡»a xU ehL
Ø   cy»š k¡fŸ beU¡f« mÂfkhd ehLfSŸ x‹W gh®gnlh°
Ø   ghy°Ôd éLjiy Ïa¡f« ( P.L.O)  1964š cUth¡f¥g£lJ
Ø   nk‰F Inuh¥ghéš gu¥gséš äf¥ bgça ehL Ãuh‹°
Ø   bj‹mbkç¡fhéš gu¥gséY« k¡fŸ bjhifæY« äf¥bgça ehL ÃnuÁš
Ø   Áwªj ju« thŒªj »ç°lš got§fis thâg neh¡»š jahç¡F« xnu ehL ÃnuÁš
Ø   Ãè¥ig‹° 7100 ÔÎfis cŸsl¡»a ehL
Ø   MÁa ehLfëš »U¤Jt®fŸ mÂf« cŸs ehL Ãè¥ig‹°
Ø   gë§F f‰fS¡F òfœbg‰w ehL Ãè¥ig‹°
Ø   M¥Ãç¡fhé‹ äf¢Á¿a ehL òU©o
Ø   ólhåš 1907 Kjš th§R¡ t«r« M£Á brŒJ tªjJ
Ø   bj‹mbkç¡fhé‹ _‹whtJ bgça ehL bgU
Ø   bgšía« eh£oš cŸs M‹£bt®¥ cy»‹ eh‹fhtJ äf¥ bgça JiwKf« k‰W« cy»‹ bgça Ïu¤Âd¡ fš tâf ika«
Ø   bghèéah ehL òfœ bg‰w RjªÂu¥nghuh£l Åu® irk‹ bghèt® bgauhš bghèéah v‹W miH¡f¥gL»wJ.
Ø   fh®¡ c‰g¤Âæš cy»š Kjèl« bgW« ehL ngh®¢R¡fš
Ø   Õí 800 ÔÎfis cŸsl¡»a xU ehL

Ø   nk‰F M¥Ãç¡fhé‹ äf¥bgça ehL khè
Ø   cy»š 4tJ äf¥ bgça ÔÎ klfh°f®
Ø   MÁahé‹ äf¢ Á¿a RjªÂu ehL khy¤ÔÎfŸ
Ø   khy¤ÔÎfŸ gts¥ghiwfshš MdJ
Ø   ÑiH ehLfë‹ mçÁ »©z« vd miH¡f¥gL« ehL äa‹kh®
Ø   cy»‹ btŸë c‰g¤Âæš K‹dâæš cŸs ehLfëš x‹W bk¡Ánfh
Ø   ônfh°yhéah 1991-92 š gy Á¿a ehLfshf Áj¿aJ
Ø   Inuh¥ghé‹ äf¥ gHikahd ehL y¡[«g®¡
Ø   cU¡F c‰g¤Âæš Inuh¥ghéš K‹dâæš cŸs ehL y¡°«g®¡
Ø   bj‹k¤Âa Inuh¥ghé‹ äf¢Á¿a ehL è¢bld°blæ‹
Ø   rfhuh ghiytd« èÃah eh£o‹ bgU« gFÂia bfh©LŸsJ
Ø   bj‹M¥Ãç¡fhé‹ Ré£#®yhªJ vd miH¡f¥gL« ehL bynrhjh
Ø   cy»‹ giHikahd  RjªÂu ehL iAÂ
Ø   cy»‹ Ïu©lhtJ giHikahd  RjªÂu ehL iyÕçah
Ø   Ïy¤Ô‹ mbkç¡fhé‹ bršt ts« äFªj ehL btåRyh
Ø   cy»‹ äf ca®ªj ڮŜ¢Á VŠrš ڮŜ¢Á  (979 Û£l® ) btåRyh eh£oš mikªJŸsJ
Ø   #¥gh‹ tl gÁá flèš mikªJŸsJ
Ø   #¥ghå‹ 4 bgça ÔÎfŸ bAh¡ifnlh, nAh‹õ], »Uõ], înfhF
Ø   cy»š mÂf MÍŸ bfh©lt®fŸ I¥ghåa bg©fŸ
Ø   fßÃa‹ flèš mikªJŸs _‹W äf¥ bgça ÔÎfŸ  1.  »ôgh         2.  ï°ngåah                        3.  Iik¡fh
Ø   1990« M©L »H¡F b#®kåÍ« nk‰F b#®kåÍ« x‹whf Ïizªjd
Ø   b#®kåæš òfœ bg‰w  fU¥ò fhLfŸ mikªJŸsd

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